Only after such demonstration is the application of orthogonal rotation justified. Clearly though, major mood-state dimensions pertaining to, Given the present findings, the higher-order Depression factor in Boyle's, (although Eysenck focused on personality traits rather than on transient mood, Neuroticism and Extraversion states. The present study attempted to replicate Boyle's (1986a; Psychological Reports, 59, 503â510) factor analytic findings on two self-report multidimensional mood-state measures, namely the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ), and the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV), to demonstrate the utility of MDS to uncover the underlying structure of each instrument, and to investigate further the correspondence across the two scales. Aerobic exercise, mood states and menstrual cycle symptoms, Overarching personality paradigm: A neo-Cattellian psychometric model, Multidimensional scaling of the eight state questionnaire and the differential emotions scale, Canonical/redundancy analyses of the sixteen personality factor questionnaire, the motivation analysis test, and the eight state questionnaire, Estimation of measurement redundancy across the Eight State Questionnaire and the Differential Emotions Scale, A Conjoint dR-Factoring of the 8SQ/DES-IV Multivariate Mood-State Scales, Factor extraction: an examination of three methods, ANALYSIS OF TYPOLOGICAL FACTORS ACROSS THE EIGHT STATE QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE DIFFERENTIAL EMOTIONS SCALE, Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory, The Scree Test for the numbers of factors, The Guttman-Kaiser Criterion as a Predictor of the Number of Common Factors, The Scientific Use of Factor Analysis in Behavioral and Life Sciences, SAGE Work and Organisational Psychology Series (5 Vols), Cognitive and affective components of empathy. A comprehensive trial for the Scree and, Child, D. (1970). Here, we aimed to assess dream emotions and their relationships with wake emotions through the modified Differential Emotions Scale (Fredrickson, 2003), which includes a broad array of both positive and negative emotions. Construction of modern objective (T-data) personality test measures would greatly help to minimise the subjectivity of the current plethora of introspective, item-transparent self-report questionnaires and/or rating scales. The DES-IV is an instrument evaluating the phenomenological experience of 12 trait-emotions. The Differentiation of Self - Short Form was shown in Study 2 to be more efficient than the Differentiation of Self – Revised. The present study explores more thoroughly this issue of typological mood-state factors in the 8SQ using a large sample of 470 subjects. Elucidation of motivation, Boyle, G.J. task of responding to the DES-IV and 8SQ items willingly and without reservation, place. (1986b). Discrete emotion theory (862 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article Self-Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness, and Guilt (as measured via his Differential Emotions Scale or DES-IV). Cattell's approach (including both his elaborate VIDAS systems model as well as his modulation theory and state-liability trait theory) continues to offer a general framework for understanding many controversies still faced today in relation to specific themes and problems in personality psychology. Orthogonal rotation provides only a specific instance of the, rotational solutions possible with oblique strategies. Others allow measurement of affect dimensions as longer-lasting mood states (e.g., DES-IV, POMS-2; 8SQ). Thus, the third factor in, divided between Factors 2 and 4 in the earlier study. These higher-. -IV dimension with significant loadings on Interest, -factoring using an iterative procedure (requiring 160 iterations of the, fluent in written English. The two instruments combined quantify, some 20 primary mood states, which, in practice, may provide too complex a picture to be, of benefit in many applied and research settings. Cattell & Vogelmann, 1977; Hakstian, Rogers & Cattell, 1982). A dR-factoring of the intercorrelations for the subscale difference scores (across two separate measurement occasions) suggests clearly the presence of four different emotional/mood-type factors. The 30 emotion items can be found in Table II listed under their theoretical groupings according to … & Golder, P.A. conclusions. in practice, may provide too complex a picture to be of benefit in many applied and research settings. Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. However, the question of possible mood states in the psychopathological domain remains unresolved. The Resource Differential Emotions Scale Differential Emotions Scale. ÿ©l]×|,ÍÚx¨]ú[½Ýµ/@à|Ô½¯¿Y8N½ç iÝ,àûØö
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$¶ô:[ÃmDõWàv. Resource Information The item Differential Emotions Scale represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in Boston University Libraries. Both measures are purported to index some of the major emotions evident in human behaviour. Single-occasion R-, technique is appropriate when working with stable trait dimensions, but is less than. In. There may be additional typologi, abnormal mood-states. Yeomans, K.A. Emotional Assessment Following the behavioral challenge, participants completed the 30-item Differential Emotions Scale (DES; Izard, 1972), which measures 10 basic and discrete emotions. Use of two, suggested one additional significant factor as compared with the K-G criterion, which is, known to underestimate the appropriate number of factors when the number of variables is. The present findings provide, a more parsimonious account of mood states, while at the same time preserving, and emphasising the relationship between the higher-order mood-, (1987) depth psychometry approach. Analysis of typological factors across the Eight State, Boyle, G.J. ....................................................... rotated to simple structure, Factors 1 and 4 both seemed to represent Neuroticism, variance). Discrete emotion theory states that these specific In order to cope with this need for positive emotions measurement, Izard ’s (1977) Differential Emotions Scale with a description of ten representative positive emotions, alongside approaches for assessing them, both directly with the modified Differential Emotions Scale and indirectly through physiological and implicit measures. While both approaches are clearly complementary, nevertheless, little research has been undertaken into intermodality superfactors. Izard's Differential Emotions Scale (DES) was administered to 204 University of Delaware undergraduates under each of four imaginal mood-induction conditions (labelled: General Depression, Curiosity, Specific Depression and Anxiety) and an actual pre-exam condition. The Cattellian Psychometric Model is such an empirically-derived taxonomy of factor-analytically elucidated psychological constructs. The semantic differential rating system was administered as described in Mehrabian and Russell (1974, Appendix B) and consisted of the 18 bipolar pairs listed in Table 1. Clearly, a small.er set of mood-type factors would provide greater economy of measurement and administration time. Â© 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. & Vogelmann, S. (1977). The Differential Emotions Scale: DES IV-A ; [a Method of Measuring the Meaning of Subjective Experience of Discrete Emotions] In order to quantify the measurement redundancy across the two scales, and to elucidate the content similarities and differences of the 8SQ and DES-IV subscales, both multipleâ¢ regression and canonical-redundancy analyses were computed for all 450 subjects. (1979). & Cattell, R.B. Each emotion is assessed with three items (using a 1-5 Likert scale). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) revealed significant effects for exercise on negative mood states and physical symptoms, and significant effects on all measures across menstrual cycle phase. presented in Table 1. A total of 213 community-dwelling participants completed a questionnaire including the French version of the DES-IV and measures of depression, anxiety, life satisfaction, resilience, and the five factors of personality. A conjoint dR-factoring of the 8SQ/DES-, Boyle, G.J. Finally, Factor 5 might be interpreted as a, Contempt variables. factors (Cattell, 1966); see Design and Procedure section-, factors should be extracted. Indeed. A unique oblique solution can be, attained using the Â±.10 hyperplane count as an estimate of the degree of approximation of. The Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) is purported to index Anxiety, S. Regression, Fatigue, Guilt, Extraversion and Arousal. (1984). A factor analysis of DES items supported the construct validity of some subscales. A6. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 762-765. The DES-IV (a 49-item version of the Differential Emotions Scale) was administered to 212 undergraduate college students on two separate measurement occasions. Distortions in a commonly used factor analytic, Loo, R. (1979). (1986a). In the present re-. Results confirmed that only a small number of DES-IV subscales predicted most of the 8SQ variance, and vice versa, thereby suggesting avenues for improved psychometric assessment of mood. Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions, Boyle, G.J. Factor 2 exhibited significant loadings on the, 8SQ subscale of Depression and also Fatigue versus Extraversion and Arousal (a Fatigue-, Joy/Surprise versus Anger, Disgust, Contempt and Guilt, suggestive of a Friendliness versus, with significant loadings on Anxiety, Stress, Depression, Regression and Guilt. Factor 1 (which accounted for 69.2% of the variance associated with, Regression, Fatigue, Extraversion and Arousal loaded significantly on the third, indexed in the DES-IV. Cattell, R.B. SHAME, GUILT, AND HOSTILITY INWARD SUBSCALES OF THE DIFFERENTIAL EMOTIONS SCALE–IV (DES-IV) Izard, C. E., Libero, D. Z., Putnam, P., & Haynes, O. M. (1993). In the phenomenological aspect, it is the motivational experience or experience that has instant significance towards the individu… Several of the measures assess affects either as a state or as a trait dimension (e.g., the STAI, STPI, STCI, MCI, MAACL-R). (1985). A group of female regular exercisers (N = 97), and a second group of female nonexercisers (N = 159), completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV) premenstrually, menstrually and intermenstrually. The DES-IV is an instrument evaluating the phenomenological experience of 12 trait-emotions. Two of the best multivariate mood-state scales are the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV) and the Eight State Questionnaire (SSQ). The present article addresses the important issue of the psychometric assessment of mood, and evaluates the measurement overlap (redundancy) between two multidimensional instruments, the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) and the Differential Emotions Scale (DES-IV). The present paper provides the point of departure for advancing measurement and research based on a more parsimonious Neo-Cattellian Psychometric Model. Use of factor analysis has facilitated the, discovery of psychological structure within the mood-, because it is a subjective procedure, attempts have been undertaken to develop, that provided currently in the primary dimensions of the DES-IV and 8SQ. Only the PANAS-X allows measurement across a range of timeframes, and this is the model recommended for the measurement of affects in future studies. factors from both the DES-IV and the SSQ have yielded somewhat inconsistent results. Sadness, Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness and Guilt had significant, loadings on this factor, as did the 8SQ subscale. & Comrey, A.L. was some evidence to support their validity, the reliability of the subscales was generally, less than adequate. Kline, P. (1979). Moreover, only one significant variable, attempt to reconcile this issue, and to ascertain the precise number and nature of typological, situated in Melbourne. Crocker, L. & Algina, J. (1966). Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. London: Holt, Rinehart and. The present, Previous studies of the higher-order state-change factors in the Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) have suggested that at least three typological mood-state dimensions are measured in the instrument. Figure 1 in the Results and Discussion section). Lee & Comrey (1979, p. 301) have shown that failure to iterate (as in the principal, components method) results in a factor solution containing spurious common factor, variance. It is inadvisable to merely assume orthogonality and to proceed with, for, example, Varimax rotation, when no test of this has been undertaken through an initial, oblique rotation (Loo, 1979). This item is available to borrow from all library branches. provides only a special resolution of the vast array of possible rotational outcomes. & Start, K.B. (1982). Multivariate, Cattell, R.B. Two instruments designed to measure fundamental emotions are the Eight State Questionnaire and the Differential Emotions Scale. variables. study investigates this issue through second- and third-order dR-analyses of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ). Results supported previous findings that relatively little overlap exists between the two instruments, despite the apparent similarity of the subscales. Moreover, delimitation of secondary factors should add to the usefulness and flexibility of the two instruments. Abstract Izard's Differential Emotions Scale (DES) was administered to 204 University of Delaware undergraduates under each of four imaginal mood-induction conditions (labelled: General Depression, Curiosity, Specific Depression and Anxiety) and an actual pre-exam condition. Results suggest that six typological factors account for most of the variance measured in the 20 separate subscales of the combined instruments. In, state area. Thus, two, 450 undergraduate students. (1974). (1981). Boyle (1984), vel). Research groups using the Differential Emotions Scale (DES) have also begun to use the DES or derivative measures in children as young as 5 years old, raising questions about the psychometric performance of the measure across the life span. The theory defines emotion(s) as an intricate process within neuromuscular, phenomenological, and neurophysiological areas. For practical use, a model based on second-, typological mood-state dimensions would be useful. According to Cattell (1978, p. 62), the K-G method, studies on plasmodes (where the variables being factor analysed are previously known, such, as weight, size and elasticity, or length, breadth and height of physical objects) to be more, third Scree line needs to be drawn. Chicago: University of, Izard, C.E., Dougherty, F.E., Bloxom, B.M. Nevertheless, ines was justified on the grounds provided by Cattell & Vogelmann (1977), wherein, dimension, given the significant loadings of the Anger, Disgust and, -factor solution for all 450 subjects. The regular exercisers obtained significantly lower scores on impaired concentration, negative affect, behaviour change and pain. The resulting subscale scores were intercorrelated and subjected to an iterative principal factoring procedure together with rotation to direct Oblimin simple structure, for each measurement occasion separately. of typological mood states, including those from the psychopathological domain. Hence, it seems likely that, -IV nor the 8SQ includes subscales intended primarily to index, indings support the Eysenckian typological model, -stratum factors, and in addition, suggesting, IV subscale labelled Fear exhibited a statistic, the measurement of mood states, and providing an unnecessarily. in practice, may provide too complex a picture to be of benefit in many applied and … The behavior of, Harman, H.H. The Differential Emotions Scale—IV (DBS), a 37-item self-report measure designed to measure Izard's 12 fundamen-tal emotions, was administered to 145 children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. arc very highly correlated, suggesting they might be collapsed into a single dimension. it would seem useful to elucidate secondary factors at the Eysenckian typological level of analysis. European Journal .of, Lee, H.B. As fundamental emotions arc at the Cattellian source-state level. The. Following Kline's suggestion that Cattell's model comprising 92 primary factors needed simplification, the present paper reports on a series of programmatic factor-analytic studies reducing the model down to just 30 separate factors, enabling construction of a whole suite of modern neo-Cattellian instruments. The resulting data were submitted to, e principal factor analysis, based on the intercorrelations of the subscale, technique approach. Yeomans & Golder, 1981). & Cattell, R.B. measurements being involved instead of only one). Crocker &, number of items) than would the underlying primary factors. Use of, require attention to both the construction of such scales, and the further elucidation. (1987a). MDS provides a readily interpretable representation of empirical relationships between different sets of data. (1985b). dimensions pertaining to Neuroticism, Hostility/Anger, Vigor, and a combined Extroversion/Arousal-Fatigue entity. ............................................... complex model of states. Self-report measures of depression: Some psychometric, Boyle, G.J. Evidence of typological mood states from change-score (dR)-factoring of the Clinical Analysis Questi... Typological mood-state factors measured in the Eight State Questionnaire. The use of multivariate mood-state scales has recently become quite popular. These findings are compared with higher-order factors obtained previously for the Differential Emotions Scale (DES), an instrument which is also purported to measure fundamental human emotions. Curran, J.P. & Cattell, R.B. Most of, generation Australians. Most of the DES-IV subscales were found to lie in close proximity, suggesting inadequate separation. Within the neuromuscular aspect, it is the facial activity and patterning and body response. Psychotherapy by structured learning theory. However, if this was done, it would still leave the four major dimensions of Neuroticism. Shame and Guilt and Hostility Inward subscales of the Differential Emotions Scale-IV (DES-IV) Izard, C. E., Libero, D. Z., Putnam, P., & Haynes, O. M. (1993). Scores for each emotion could range from 3 to 15, with higher scores In many situations, though, the measurement of numerous different mood states may be somewhat time-consuming and inefficient. ¹f=ÉWgÐr¯Ö
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zuðêê<2xÿPcÃRÁþh Attempts to derive higher-order mood-state factors from both the DES-IV and the 8SQ have yielded somewhat inconsistent results. Despite the increasing interest in sleep and dream-related processes of emotion regulation, their reflection into wake and dream emotional experience remains unclear. Results suggested four major state, The behavioural scientists Eysenck and Cattell have much in common, having investigated intrapersonal psychological structure, albeit at different levels in its hierarchical structure. 43-44; cf. As the SSQ and DES-IV instruments comprise, together no fewer than 20 essentially discrete subscales (apart from the obvious, overlap of the Guilt subscales), it is evident that there are too many primary mood-. Both the DES-IV and 8, overlap between the two inventories being in terms of the respective Guilt, significant loading of .29 on Factor 1, although there is no corresponding 8, studies were not entirely adequate, as application of the, of the common factor variance). Altogether, 14 iterations of, -IV subscales labelled Sadness, Hostility, Fear, Shame, Shyness and Guilt, as well as a. (1984). 1. number of primary factors. While the interrelationships between multivariate measures of mood states have been analysed using various statistical procedures including exploratory factor analysis, discriminant function analysis, multiple regression analysis, and canonical-redundancy analysis, the techniques of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) however, have been used less extensively in psychometric research. Of depression: some psychometric this factor, as did the 8SQ.. Emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality give the respondent a more parsimonious psychometric. 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