Most religions can be descri… In bringing modernization and Christianity to Africa, many westerners had the notion that conversion from ATR would follow similar process as that in western religion. The animal that Africans worshipped according to Taylor had the ability of leaving one body and taking over other bodies such as men and things. Christianity denotes the existence of God in the trinity of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. As a young boy, Malidoma Somé was abducted by Jesuit missionaries and made to undergo indoctrination into European ways of thought and worship in colonial Burkina Faso. Looking for the very best because it looks perfect, will be back with more assignments, you helped me complete several other tasks as you handled paper. This policy aids clients to access products cheaply and in the correct quantity. What I do not tell them is that I consulted this babalawo over the Internet. This anima also according to Taylor had the ability to live after death. There is a great need to differentiate between legitimate spiritual systems and witchcraft, yet it is widely accepted that human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems. Each group of individuals as well as tribe had their religious form over time in response to various life experiences and situations. Africa is A Country. 3 And similar to this was the dialogue that took place between Edwin Smith, who had gone out as a missionary to Africa, and Emil Ludwig, an eminent biographer. Poverty is a problem for many African countries, and it will be one … Many of mythical contention have also been in the effect that European missionaries brought about the knowledge of God to Africa as well as religion. In many of the African spiritual traditions it is believed that there is one “God”. All African Countries Are Poor. This construct is false entirely since Mbiti contends that many people in Africa were already aware of existence of God and referred to him as Ngai, Mungu and Unkulunkulu among others (Johnson, 2004). The different African countries are made up of rural and urban regions. The lengths to which some missionaries went in their bid to “civilise” people they saw as inferior still astonishes. As stated earlier, the belief in the impersonal (mystical) powers is dominant and pervasive among traditional Africans. Therefore, the ATRs are not certainly idolatrous. Even though Westerners revealed the idea that ATRs operated at a personal level, the society created focal ATRs beliefs and practices. Social Analysis Problem description How complete is our knowledge of the problem? To get around these restrictions, the slaves started to equate their gods with Catholic saints. Although the slaves accepted Roman Catholicism, they did not give up their traditional beliefs either. continue to have on the way Africans worship, traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with, every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser, human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems, Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices, a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head”, Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities, offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs, Childhood sex education reduces risky sexual behaviour: a Nigerian case study. In keeping up with the generation of Pentecostal pastors in Ghana who use the media to deride Ghanaian traditional religion as devil worship in the continued colonial tradition, Kwaku Bonsam uses similar tactics to strike back. 3 Leo Frobenius, The Voice of Africa, Vol. I was curious to get a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head” after a friend had had a similar reading done. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals, include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. Among the many easy writing service providers, we are the most preferred.This is no self-proclamation but a fitting testament from our customers. A person therefore had to be born within a people to undertake and comprehend the people’s religious practices. Mudimbe's Theories on Missionary Discourse in Africa]. What is African Traditional Religion? The fact that heathen and paganism refer to people with no religion, and nobody worshipped false gods, strikes off heathen and pagan titles because they believed in Supreme Being and divinities (Awolalu, 1976, p. 7). The most important thing is that in the new South Africa religion and spirituality are used to create greater understanding and harmony rather than to divide people as was done in the past. Additionally, in relevance to Christianity, God is spirit and should as a result be worshipped in truth and spirit. The keepers of the age-old traditions are staking their claim for credibility despite the many challenges they face. We have been in the writing business since 2009, and have served many students who have kept coming back and even referred others to us. This explains further why Africans in slavery maintained their traditional religious practices. Awolalu, J. O. Will reach you with more assignments, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis III. In nearby Benin Republic, a country where majority of the population hold on to their indigenous faith, Voudou, Aligbonon Akpochihala hosts his own radio show and appears on television to dispel misconceptions about the Voudou faith. Correcting Misconceptions About African Traditional Religions. I couldn’t help but compare his very modern and professional service to the recurring stereotype of wild-eyed witch doctors providing consultations in a darkened room that is popular in Nollywood and even Western depictions of any African spiritual system. With such uniformed details, therefore, there was wide assumption that all ATRs are primitive and same in their nature. …, Continue reading “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s Established in 1962, Kohl’s Corporation is an American company, which operates family-oriented department stores. Will Covid-19 vaccines bring life back to normal in 2021? This belief has a theological basis. It is often combined with elements of Christianity and Islam. Take Ghanaian priest and healer Kwaku Bonsam, for instance, the focus of this New York Times article. Many of the myths were however driven by superiority complex of the westerners in relevance to what they considered the ‘’burden of the white man’’ to modernize Africans. Most missionaries strongly believed that they were saving Africans from satanic oppression and ignorance, an idea that most post-colonial Africans have internalised. However, what are some of the myths and real practices that have overshadowed the myths? A few months ago at a work meeting, the topic of ritual killings and idol worship came up and a colleague boldly objected to a idea that ritual killings had been traditionally done by Nigerians in pre-colonial times. Healthcare’s ‘toxic’ working conditions exposed in student’s documentary, Morocco on high Covid-19 alert as football continues, South African universities need to know why students’ suicide risk is so high. If you have travelled overseas from the continent, there is a likelihood that … From Nigeria to Kenya, it is disturbing how we have come to accept the intolerant Western views of African indigenous spiritualities, believing that we are saved because we no longer engage in “idol worship”. Okay, so it is a little weird starting out a list with “Other,” but bear with me—I am starting out with the less popular religions and working up toward the most widespread faiths. Their belief in many spirits as revealed by their belief in spirits existence in every object in every object as a result hurls Africans to an abyss of holy aboriginality. To each his own. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African faith systems believe in the concept of one God above all other divinities and deities, who function much as a pantheon of saints. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, … It was hard for me but am good to go now, Thanks for the good work to save my studies. Will keep in touch with more assignments, this is Tom again, just wonna say thank you for assistance. Therefore, the theory bundled all ATRs as one primitive appearance and nature thus, inferior to other religions including Christianity and Islam. The worst thing is that it uses the local people to enforce itself”. Homosexuality, incest, and bestiality are inherently taboo for those following the Christian Bible . That is why we have freewill, and regardless of whether we choose to acknowledge that a living God exists or not, and regardless of how we choose to worship Him, directly or through deities, we will all be eventually accountable. John Mbiti, a prominent Christian theologian from Kenya who helped debunk entrenched ideas that traditional African religions were primitive, … Even so, theologians of African descent including Mbithi shed more light on ATR thus, changing the Western ATR dialogue into a more objective one with relevance to practices, beliefs and purpose in the lives of Africans. Africa is ridden with Disease. For this reason, the disciples of Taylor conclude that African religion is said to be polytheistic, meaning that Africans serve several gods which further puts African religion at the bottom of religious evolution. Myth: Slavery is a product of capitalism. ANTITRUST IN AN ERA OF MARKET FAILURE. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 33(2), 557-606. He named himself “Bonsam” which in Twi means “devil” thus knowingly poking fun at the continued demonisation of indigenous faith systems. Headquartered in Menomonee Falls, WI, the chain has over 1,160 stores in 49 states across the US.  In this case therefore, the argument is that missionaries did not bring God to Africa, instead God brought them to Africans. Voodoo Practitioners Make A Pact With The Devil. As “Amma”, among the Dogon people, or “Oludamare” among the Yoruba. For those who are open-minded and interested, there are a growing number of priests ordained in their respective spiritualities who are changing the face of indigenous African spiritualities on the continent and in the Diaspora. The rationale is to designate African traditional religion as inferior to Islam and Christianity. However, this is a wrong ATR connotation because believers have a Supreme Being to whom is given all reverence. There are few religions as globally misunderstood as African traditional religions. Many Western historians and scholars have a result perpetuated many of the ARRs myths. (2010). However, the words used in ATR reference were not true because Africans were already aware of religion and believed in the Supreme Being. Even so, while it can be true that some ATRs make reverence and reference to things, such as belief in sanctity of rivers and trees, it would be right to bundle all ATRs as animistic. Similarly, few Africans had published accurate ATR representation books while the published have not been circulating according to reports by historians and scholars. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, leading to growth of religious inaccuracies. Once again, thanks a lot, The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. The ATR ascription as primitive in regards to Western racial pride set their civilized culture while that of Africans was rudimentary and simple because (Africans) had not gotten used to the Western way of life (Awolalu, 1976, p. 6). Understanding African Traditional Religion. Are our efforts to deal with the problem in accord with research findings? Religion creates a significant part of African life. In essence, these were mainly western scholar’s constructs as a derogatory reference to ATR as a representation of the people’s cultural backwardness. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. African indigenous faith systems became “primitive”, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. It is a true statement of fact … Religious colonialism is the lesser-discussed arm of colonialism itself, but its psychological effects have been as long-lasting. In his own bid to modernise the faith, Akpochihala launched a crash course that allows Voudou devotees to become priests in four months, as opposed to the usual three years. Premium Essay Writing Services is the ideal place for homework help or essay writing service. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices are almost nonexistent, so most of us never consider that the growth of Pentecostal churches is encouraging witchcraft related fears or that market forces are central to today’s beliefs in witchcraft. People often refer to “Africa” as if it is a country rather than a continent. Indigenous faith systems were competition to those missionaries who wanted their religions to be established in Africa, thus they were essentially subjected to a smear campaign. The traditional religions of Africa are human in the deepest sense, because they focus on people and their everyday problems. Retrieved from http://organizations.uncfsu.edu/ncrsa/journal/v04/johnson_understanding.htm. Kwaku Bonsam regularly uses social media for divination purposes, and he also appears on television talk shows. Some religions (as well as cultures in general) consider various sexual practices taboo. There are numerous different religions practiced in Africa which do not get a lot of attention—just as there are everywhere. Besides all religions have astonishment and orientation to the spirit world. There have also been constant debates on the existence of religion in Africa before missionaries work in the continent. Thinking About Religion, 4. Traditional/Indigenous African religions are the traditional beliefs and practices of African people including the various traditional religions and customs. It was through email that my friend introduced me to him, his service was paid for through his website, and after consulting with Ifá, he sent me my life path reading in pdf format. It creates an atmosphere of fear, uncertainty and general suspicion. In this regard therefore, Africans worshipping piece of wood will not in any case despair if the wood gets lost based on the fact that wood is just a being’s representation and is served as a solid personification of goddess that is represented in its presence (Awolalu, 1976, p. 8). What exactly are rituals? Size Defining characteristics Distribution What theory or theories of human behavior are explicit or, more likely, implicit …, Continue reading “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, Challenges Facing Financial Managers Devlin, A. In considering traditional sub-Saharan African religious systems for study, one is confronted not only by the multiplicity of potential Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African … It is erroneous to assume that it is after Africans migrate to the Diaspora that they … The worshipped objects as a result, have meanings beyond themselves. Let’s put these common myths to rest. Therefore, the society played a crucial unifying factor to the dreams and beliefs of a person (Johnson, 2004). Now this confession is enough to freak out a lot of Nigerians, who absurdly believe that Ifá, a deity of divination would demand a human sacrifice. Native American religions, religious beliefs and sacramental practices of the indigenous peoples of North and South America.Until the 1950s it was commonly assumed that the religions of the surviving Native Americans were little more than curious anachronisms, dying remnants of humankind’s childhood.These traditions lacked sacred texts and fixed doctrines or moral codes and were … The word idol is used to describe the object which is an emblem of that which is worshipped by the Africans. Back in the 18th century, Haiti was governed by … A couple of examples include Zoroastrianism and Rastafarianism. African indigenous spiritualities in the 21st century (1976). 1. It is believed that in rituals, people are regularly abducted and killed, their body parts used to create charms or “fetishes” that are said to bring riches to whoever bears them. Many traditional African religions are based on guiding principles that are unfathomable to foreigners, more specifically those with interests such as historians and scholars. Unlike the “primitive” witch doctor of popular imagination, Kwaku Bonsam has adopted children, opened a free elementary school and runs a cattle farm. While idolatry means worshipping false gods or unnatural beings, ATRs worship the objects mainly as symbols and emblems and not as means to themselves. Earlier researchers and missionaries portrayed them often as primitive and barbaric and ridiculed them [I give many examples in my book: White Fathers in Colonial Central Africa - a Critical Examination of V.Y. Therefore under such circumstances, true ATR representation has been a daunting task leading to widespread ATR mythology. In line with the thoughts of Taylor, ATR as animism is the fact that Africans are polytheistic. Yet religious colonialism on Africans is the main reason that most of us have come to view our own indigenous faith systems as epitomes of evil. The terms were also largely used in the colonial period. While there are similarities in the manner and place of worship in reference to Supreme Being and divinities, each ATR within its center had a signature of practice and belief ascribed only by a group of people. The Economy, Monetary Policy, and Monopolies, “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s”, Sample Sociology Paper on Saving Capitalism, Criminal Justice: Sample Essay on Why Children Join Gangs, Religious Studies on Contribution of Christianity to Western civilization, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment, Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers, Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s. Proof of this is in the ritual killings that keep on happening in this modern age whether it is 100 graves dug up in Benin Republic or albinos being killed for their body parts in Tanzania. Pentecostalism has much in common with the way indigenous spiritualities are practiced, with its heavy emphasis on exorcisms and speaking in tongues. Traditional African religion is very popular and arrived here with our North and West African ancestors. By Jacob K. Olupona. When Ludwig got to These words are still relevant today. What population is affected by the problem? Africa is a massive continent with diverse religious traditions, to the extent that within the same tradition there have been variations. However, they were generally forbidden from practicing their religion. Vodou began when African slaves brought their native traditions with them as they were forcefully transported to the new world. Fact: Slavery is older than the … Slavery and World History. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications … Further ATR myths have also referred to the religions as heathen, paganism and magical. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic, and traditional medicine. The same ATR effect remains solid even in their modern Christian worship (Johnson, 2004). (vii) Idolatry: Idol means false god; and so idolatry is the worshipping of false gods or that which is not real. Africans Speak African.